Posted by: History Of Macedonia | June 7, 2007

History of Molossia (Molossis)

1. Pandosia, not far removed from the Acheron and the Acherusian Lake, and answering now, according to Leake, to Kastri. It was a colony of Elis, and gave name to another Pandosia, in Italy, in the country of the Brutth. Alex­ander, king of Epirus, was warned by the oracle of Dodona to avoid Pandosia and the Acherusian water, and erroneously applied it to this his own Pandosia, instead of that of Italy, where he received his fatal wound.

  2. Buckatium, Bucheta, or Bucenta, close to the Acherusian Lake, and the remains of which are now to be found at the harbor of St. John.

3. Nicopolis, situate on an isthmus, on the coast, and answering now to Prevesa Vccchia. This place was founded by Augustus in commemoration of the victory obtained by him at Actium, and may be said to have arisen out of the ruins of all the surrounding cities in Epi­rus and Acarnania, and even as far as /Ktolia, which were compelled to con­tribute to its prosperity. So anxious, indeed, was Augustus lo raise his new colony to the highest rank among the cities of Greece, that he caused it to be admitted among those states which sent deputies to the Amphictyonic assembly. He also ordered games to be celebrated with great pomp every five years. Having afterward fallen into decay, it was restored by the Emperor Julian.

The Molossi must have possessed several towns in the interior, since we are told by Polybius that, out of the seventy Epirotic cities destroyed by Paulus Aemilius, the greater number belonged to,this people. Few of these, however, are named in history. The most celebrated was Passaron, which may be con­sidered as their capital, since Plutarch, in the life of Pyrrhus, reports that the kings of Epirus convened here the solemn assembly of the whole nation, when, after having performed the customary sacrifices, they took an oath that they would govern according to the established laws; and the people, in return, swore to maintain the constitution and defend the kingdom. Cramer seeks to identify it with some ruins near Joanina, in a south-southwest direction, and about four hours from that city.   Leake leaves trie site uncertain.Modern travellers have expressed some surprise that no mention is made in history of the Lake of Joanina, and have even been led to suppose that this considerable expanse of water could not have existed in ancient times. But the truth is, that the present Lake of Joanina is the ancient Pains Pambotis (Παμβώτις Λίμνην) mentioned by Eustathius. He describes it as a lake having an island in the middle, containing a remarkable hill, which was fortified by Jus­tinian, and to which he removed the inhabitants of the adjacent city of Euroea, which was in a defenceless state. The fortress of Joanina now occupies the site of Justinian’s castle, and the city of Joanina that of the ancient Euroea, in all probability.We must now close this description of Epirus with some account of the city and republic of Ambracia. This celebrated city was situated on the banks of the Arachthus or Arethon, a short distance from the waters of the Sinus Ambracius, to which it gave name. It is said to have been founded by some Corinthians headed by Tolgus or Torgus, who was either the brother or the son of Cypselus, chief of Corinth. It early acquired maritime celebrity by reason of its advan­tageous position, and was a powerful and independent city toward the com­mencement of the Peloponnesian war, in which it espoused the cause of Co­rinth and Sparta.   At a later period we find its independence threatened by Philip, who seems to have entertained the project of annexing it to the do­minions of his brother-in-law, Alexander, king of the Molossians. Whether it actually fell into the power of that monarch is uncertain, but there can be no doubt of its having been in the occupation of Philip, since the Ambraciots, ac­cording to Diodorus Siculus, on the accession of Alexander the Great to the throne, ejected the Macedonian garrison stationed in their city. Ambracia, how­ever, did not long enjoy the freedom which it thus regained, for, having fallen into the hands of Pyrrhus, we arc told that it was selected by that prince as his usaal place of residence. Many years after, being under the dominion of the iEtolians, who were at that time involved in hostilities with the Romans, it sus­tained a siege against the latter, almost unequalled in tho annals of ancient war­fare for the gallantry and perseverance displayed in the defence of the place. Ambracia at last opened its gates to the foe, and was stripped of all the statues and pictures with which it had been so richly adorned by Pyrrhus. From this time it sank into a state of insignificance, and Augustus, by transferring its inhabitants to Nicopolis, completed its desolation. It stood near the modern Arta, which town also gives its modern name to the Ambracian Gulf.  “System of Ancient and Mediæval Geography for the Use of Schools and Colleges” By Charles Anthon

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Posted by: History Of Macedonia | June 6, 2007

Ancient cities of Epirus

Phoinike:

According to an inscription its called Phoinika (Φοινίκα Gr) (SEG 23.189.1.12)

Polybius calls it a city in 2.5.5 and 2.8.4 and there is also an inscription of Dodone who calls it a ‘Chaonian city’ (πόλις Χαόνων) . It seems the city was the political centre of the Chaonians from the 4th c. Their patron goddess was most likely Athena Polias.

Some inhabitants of the city were theodorokoi in a list of an inscription found in Argos. The remainders of the city in modern south Albania is a small walled acropolis.

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | June 6, 2007

General history of Epirotan Kings

Kings of
Epirus.

Epirus is a province of Greece, separated from Thessaly and Macedonia by mount
Pindus. The most powerful people of this country were the Molossians.

The kings of
Epirus pretended to derive their descent from Pyr­rhus, the son of Achilles, who established himself in that country; and called themselves Aeacidae, from Aeacus, the grandfather of Achilles.
b The genealogy of the latter kings, who were the only sovereigns of this country of whom any accounts remain, is variously related by authors, and consequently must be doubtful and obscure.

Arymbas ascended the throne, after a long succession of kings ; and as he was then very young, the states of Epirus, who were sensible that the welfare of the people depends on the proper edu­cation of their princes, sent him to Athens, which was the residence and centre of all the arts and sciences, in order to cultivate, in that excellent school, such knowledge as was necessary to form the mind of a king. He there learned the art of reigning, and as he surpassed all his ancestors in ability and knowledge, he was in con­sequence infinitely more esteemed and beloved by his people than they had been. When he returned from
Athens, he made laws, established a senate and magistracy, and regulated the form of the government.

Neoptolemus, whose daughter Olympias had espoused Philip king of Macedon, attained an equal share in the regal government with Arymbas his eldest brother, by the influence of his son-in-law. After the death of Arymbas, Aeacides, his son, ought to have been his successor ; but Philip had still sufficient influence to procure his expulsion from the kingdom by the Molossians, who established Alexander, the son of Neoptolemus, sole monarch of
Epirus.

Alexander espoused Cleopatra, the daughter of Philip, and marched with an army into Italy, where he lost his life in the country of the Brutians.

Aeacides then ascended the throne, and reigned without any associate in Epirus, He espoused Phthia, the daughter of Menon the Thessalian, by whom he had two daughters, Deidamia and Troas, and one son, the celebrated Pyrrhus. As he was marching to the assistance of Olympias, bis troops mutinied against him, condemned him to exile, and slaughtered most of his friends, Pyrrhus, who was then an infant, happily escaped this massacre. Neoptolemus, a prince of the blood, but whose particular extrac­tion is little known, was placed on the throne by the people of
Epirus.

Pyrrhus, being recalled by his subjects at the age of twelve years, first shared the sovereignty with Neoptolemus ; but having after­wards divested him of his dignity, he reigned alone. This historv will treat of the various adventures. He died in the city of
Argos, in an attack to make himself master of it. Helenus, his son, reigned after him for some time in Epirus, which was afterwards united to the
Roman empire.

The Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians … By Charles Rollin, p Cix

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | March 27, 2007

100 Most Famous Ancient Macedonian Names

KINGS OF MACEDON AND DIADOCHI

1. ALEXANDROS m Ancient Greek (ALEXANDER Latinized)
Pronounced: al-eg-ZAN-dur
From the Greek name Alexandros, which meant ‘defending men’ from Greek alexein ‘to defend, protect, help’ and aner ‘man’ (genitive andros). Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, is the most famous bearer of this name. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. The name was borne by five kings of Macedon.

2. PHILIPPOS m Ancient Greek (PHILIP Latinized)
Pronounced: FIL-ip
From the Greek name Philippos which means ‘friend of horses’, composed of the elements philos ‘friend’ and hippos ‘horse’. The name was borne by five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great.

2. AEROPOS m Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Male form of Aerope who in Greek mythology was the wife of King Atreus of Mycenae. Aeropos was also the son of Aerope, daughter of Kepheus: ‘Ares, the Tegeans say, mated with Aerope, daughter of Kepheus (king of Tegea), the son of Aleos. She died in giving birth to a child, Aeropos, who clung to his mother even when she was dead, and sucked great abundance of milk from her breasts. Now this took place by the will of Ares.’ (Pausanias 8.44.) The name was borne by two kings of Macedon.

4. ALKETAS m Ancient Greek (ALCAEUS Latinized)
Pronounced: al-SEE-us
Derived from Greek alke meaning ‘strength’. This was the name of a 7th-century BC lyric poet from the island of Lesbos.

5. AMYNTAS m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek amyntor meaning ‘defender’. The name was borne by three kings of Macedon.

6. ANTIGONOS m Ancient Greek (ANTIGONUS Latinized)
Pronounced: an-TIG-o-nus
Means ‘like the ancestor’ from Greek anti ‘like’ and goneus ‘ancestor’. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander died, he took control of most of Asia Minor. He was known as Antigonus ‘Monophthalmos’ (’the One-Eyed’). Antigonos II (ruled 277-239 BC) was known as ‘Gonatos’ (‘knee, kneel’).

7. ANTIPATROS m Ancient Greek (ANTIPATER Latinized)
Pronounced: an-TI-pa-tur
From the Greek name Antipatros, which meant ‘like the father’ from Greek anti ‘like’ and pater ‘father’. This was the name of an officer of Alexander the Great, who became the regent of Macedon during Alexander’s absence.

8. ARCHELAOS m Ancient Greek (ARCHELAUS Latinized)
Pronounced: ar-kee-LAY-us
Latinized form of the Greek name Archelaos, which meant ‘master of the people’ from arche ‘master’ and laos ‘people’. It was also the name of the 7th Spartan king who came in the throne of Sparti in 886 BC, long before the establishment of the Macedonian state.

9. ARGAIOS m Greek Mythology (ARGUS Latinized)
Derived from Greek argos meaning ‘glistening, shining’. In Greek myth this name belongs to both the man who built the Argo and a man with a hundred eyes. The name was borne by three kings of Macedon.

10. DEMETRIOS m Ancient Greek (DEMETRIUS Latinized)
Latin form of the Greek name Demetrios, which was derived from the name of the Greek goddess Demeter. Kings of Macedon and the Seleucid kingdom have had this name. Demetrios I (ruled 309-301 BC) was known as ‘Poliorketes’ (the ‘Beseiger’).

11. KARANOS m Ancient Greek (CARANUS Latinized)
Derived from the archaic Greek word ‘koiranos’ or ‘karanon”, meaning ‘ruler’, ‘leader’ or ‘king’. Both words stem from the same archaic Doric root ‘kara’ meaning head, hence leader, royal master. The word ‘koiranos’ already had the meaning of ruler or king in Homer. Karanos is the name of the founder of the Argead dynasty of the Kings of Macedon.

12. KASSANDROS m Greek Mythology (CASSANDER Latinized)
Pronounced: ka-SAN-dros
Possibly means ‘shining upon man’, derived from Greek kekasmai ‘to shine’ and aner ‘man’ (genitive andros). In Greek myth Cassandra was a Trojan princess, the daughter of Priam and Hecuba. She was given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, but when she spurned his advances he cursed her so nobody would believe her prophecies. The name of a king of Macedon.

13. KOINOS m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek koinos meaning ‘usual, common’. An Argead king of Macedon in the 8th century BC.

14. LYSIMACHOS m Ancient Greek (LYSIMACHUS Latinized)
Means ‘a loosening of battle’ from Greek lysis ‘a release, loosening’ and mache ‘battle’. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander’s death Lysimachus took control of Thrace.

15. SELEUKOS m Ancient Greek (SELEUCUS Latinized)
Means ‘to be light’, ‘to be white’, derived from the Greek word leukos meaning ‘white, bright’. This was the name of one of Alexander’s generals that claimed most of Asia and founded the Seleucid dynasty after the death of Alexander in Babylon.

16. ARRIDHAIOS m Ancient Greek
Son of Philip II and later king of Macedon. The greek etymology is Ari (= much) + adj Daios (= terrifying). Its full meaning is “too terrifying”. Its Aeolian type is Arribaeos.

17. ORESTES m Greek Mythology
Pronounced: o-RES-teez
Derived from Greek orestais meaning ‘of the mountains’. In Greek myth he was the son of Agamemnon. He killed his mother Clytemnestra after she killed his father. The name of a king of Macedon (ruled 399-396 BC).

18. PAUSANIAS m Ancient Greek
King of Macedon in 393 BC. Pausanias was also the name of the Spartan king at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC, and the name of the Greek traveller, geographer and writer whose most famous work is ‘Description of Greece’, and also the name of the man who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC.

19. PERDIKKAS m Ancient Greek (PERDICCAS Latinized)
Derived from Greek perdika meaning ‘partridge’. Perdikkas I is presented as founder of the kingdom of Macedon in Herodotus 8.137. The name was borne by three kings of Macedon.

20. PERSEUS m Greek Mythology
Pronounced: PUR-see-us
It derives from Greek verb pertho meaning ‘to destroy, conquer’. Its full meaning is the “conqueror”. Perseus was a hero in Greek legend. He killed Medusa, who was so ugly that anyone who gazed upon her was turned to stone, by looking at her in the reflection of his shield and slaying her in her sleep. The name of a king of Macedon (ruled 179-168 BC).

21. PTOLEMEOS m Ancient Greek (PTOLEMY Latinized)
Pronounced: TAWL-e-mee
Derived from Greek polemeios meaning ‘aggressive’ or ‘warlike’. Ptolemy was the name of several Greco-Egyptian rulers of Egypt, all descendents of Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great’s generals. This was also the name of a Greek astronomer. Ptolemy ‘Keraunos’ (ruled 281-279 BC) is named after the lighting bolt thrown by Zeus.

22. TYRIMMAS m Greek Mythology
Tyrimmas, an Argead king of Macedon and son of Coenus. Also known as Temenus. In Greek mythology, Temenus was the son of Aristomaches and a great-great grandson of Herakles. He became king of Argos. Tyrimmas was also a man from Epirus and father of Evippe, who consorted with Odysseus (Parthenius of Nicaea, Love Romances, 3.1). Its full meaning is “the one who loves cheese”.

QUEENS AND ROYAL FAMILY

23. EURYDIKE f Greek Mythology (EURYDICE Latinized)
Means ‘wide justice’ from Greek eurys ‘wide’ and dike ‘justice’. In Greek myth she was the wife of Orpheus. Her husband tried to rescue her from Hades, but he failed when he disobeyed the condition that he not look back upon her on their way out. Name of the mother of Philip II of Macedon.

24. BERENIKE f Ancient Greek (BERENICE Latinized)
Pronounced: ber-e-NIE-see
Means ‘bringing victory’ from pherein ‘to bring’ and nike ‘victory’. This name was common among the Ptolemy ruling family of Egypt.

25. KLEOPATRA f Ancient Greek (CLEOPATRA Latinized), English
Pronounced: klee-o-PAT-ra
Means ‘glory of the father’ from Greek kleos ‘glory’ combined with patros ‘of the father’. In the Iliad, the name of the wife of Meleager of Aetolia. This was also the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Also the name of a bride of Philip II of Macedon.

26. CYNNA f Ancient Greek
Half-sister of Alexander the great. Her name derives from the adj. of doric dialect Cyna (= tough).

27. THESSALONIKI f Ancient Greek
Means ‘victory over the Thessalians’, from the name of the region of Thessaly and niki, meaning ‘victory’. Name of Alexander the Great’s step sister and of the city of Thessaloniki which was named after her in 315 BC.

GENERALS, SOLDIERS, PHILOSOPHERS AND OTHERS

28. PARMENION m ancient Greek
The most famous General of Philip and Alexander the great. Another famous bearer of this name was the olympic winner Parmenion of Mitiline. His name derives from the name Parmenon + the ending -ion used to note descendancy. It means the “descedant of Parmenon”.

29. PEUKESTAS m Ancient Greek
He saved Alexander the Great in India. One of the most known Macedonians. His name derives from Πευκής (= sharp) + the Doric ending -tas. Its full meaning is the “one who is sharp”.

30. ARISTOPHANES m Ancient Greek
Derived from the Greek elements aristos ‘best’ and phanes ‘appearing’. The name of one of Alexander the Great’s personal body guard who was present during the murder of Cleitus. (Plutarch, Alexander, ‘The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans’). This was also the name of a 5th-century BC Athenian playwright.

31. KORRAGOS m Ancient Greek
The Macedonian who challenged into a fight the Olympic winner Dioxippos and lost. His name derives from Koira (= army) + ago (= lead). Korragos has the meaning of “the leader of the army”.

32. ARISTON m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek aristos meaning ‘the best’. The name of a Macedonian officer on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book II, 9 and Book III, 11, 14).

33. KLEITUS m Ancient Greek (CLEITUS Latinized)
Means ‘calling forth’ or ‘summoned’ in Greek. A phalanx battalion commander in Alexander the Great’s army at the Battle of Hydaspes. Also the name of Alexander’s nurse’s brother, who severed the arm of the Persian Spithridates at the Battle of the Granicus.

34. HEPHAISTION m Greek Mythology
Derived from Hephaistos (‘Hephaestus’ Latinized) who in Greek mythology was the god of fire and forging and one of the twelve Olympian deities. Hephaistos in Greek denotes a ‘furnace’ or ‘volcano’. Hephaistion was the companion and closest friend of Alexander the Great. He was also known as ‘Philalexandros’ (‘friend of Alexander’).

35. HERAKLEIDES m Ancient Greek (HERACLEIDES Latinized)
Perhaps means ‘key of Hera’ from the name of the goddess Hera combined with Greek kleis ‘key’ or kleidon ‘little key’. The name of two Macedonian soldiers on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I, 2; Book III, 11 and Book VII, 16).

36. KRATEROS m Ancient Greek (CRATERUS Latinized)
Derived from Greek adj. Κρατερός (= Powerful). This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. A friend of Alexander the Great, he was also known as ‘Philobasileus’ (‘friend of the King’).

37. NEOPTOLEMOS m Greek Mythology (NEOPTOLEMUS Latinized)
Means ‘new war’, derived from Greek neos ‘new’ and polemos ‘war’. In Greek legend this was the name of the son of Achilles, brought into the Trojan War because it was prophesied the Greeks could not win it unless he was present. After the war he was slain by Orestes because of his marriage to Hermione. Neoptolemos was believed to be the ancestor of Alexander the Great on his mother’s (Olympias’) side (Plutarch). The name of two Macedonian soldiers during Alexander’s campaigns (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I, 6 and Book II, 27).

38. PHILOTAS m Ancient Greek
From Greek philotes meaning ‘friendship’. Son of Parmenion and a commander of Alexander the Great’s Companion cavalry.

39. PHILOXENOS m Ancient Greek
Meaning ‘friend of strangers’ derived from Greek philos meaning friend and xenos meaning ‘stranger, foreigner’. The name of a Macedonian soldier on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book III, 6).

40. MENELAOS m Greek Mythology (MENELAUS Latinized)
Means ‘withstanding the people’ from Greek meno ‘to last, to withstand’ and laos ‘the people’. In Greek legend he was a king of Sparta and the husband of Helen. When his wife was taken by Paris, the Greeks besieged the city of Troy in an effort to get her back. After the war Menelaus and Helen settled down to a happy life. Macedonian naval commander during the wars of the Diadochi and brother of Ptolemy Lagos.

41. LAOMEDON m ancient greek
Friend from boyhood of Alexander and later Satrap. His names derives from the greek noun laos (λαός = “people” + medon (μέδω = “the one who governs”)

42. POLYPERCHON Ancient Greek
Macedonian, Son of Simmias His name derives from the greek word ‘Πολύ’ (=much) + σπέρχω (= rush).

43. HEGELOCHOS m (HEGELOCHUS Latinized)
Known as the conspirator. His name derives from the greek verb (ηγέομαι = “walking ahead” + greek noun λόχος = “set up ambush”).

44. POLEMON m ancient Greek
From the house of Andromenes. Brother of Attalos. Means in greek “the one who is fighting in war”.

45. AUTODIKOS m ancient greek
Somatophylax of Philip III. His name in greek means “the one who takes the law into his (own) hands”

46. BALAKROS m ancient Greek
Son of Nicanor. We already know Macedonians usually used a “beta” instead of a “phi” which was used by Atheneans (eg. “belekys” instead of “pelekys”, “balakros” instead of “falakros”). “Falakros” has the meaning of “bald”.

47. NIKANOR (Nικάνωρ m ancient Greek; Latin: Nicanor) means “victor” – from Nike (Νικη) meaning “victory”.
Nicanor was the name of the father of Balakras. He was a distinguished Macedonian during the reign of Phillip II.
Another Nicanor was the son of Parmenion and brother of Philotas. He was a distinguished officer (commander of the Hypaspists) in the service of Alexander the Great. He died of disease in Bactria in 330 BC.

48. LEONNATOS m ancient Greek
One of the somatophylakes of Alexander. His name derives from Leon (= Lion) + the root Nat of noun Nator (= dashing). The full meaning is “Dashing like the lion”.

49. KRITOLAOS m ancient Hellinic
He was a potter from Pella. His name was discovered in amphoras in Pella during 1980-87. His name derives from Κρίτος (= the chosen) + Λαός (= the people). Its full meaning is “the chosen of the people”.

50. ZOILOS m ancient Hellinic
Father of Myleas from Beroia – From zo-e (ΖΩΗ) indicating ‘lively’, ‘vivacious’. Hence the Italian ‘Zoilo’

51. ZEUXIS m ancient Hellinic
Name of a Macedonian commander of Lydia in the time of Antigonos III and also the name of a Painter from Heraclea – from ‘zeugnumi’ = ‘to bind’, ‘join together’

52. LEOCHARIS m ancient Hellinic
Sculptor – Deriving from ‘Leon’ = ‘lion’ and ‘charis’ = ‘grace’. Literally meaning the ‘lion’s grace’.

53. DEINOKRATIS m ancient Hellinic
Helped Alexander to create Alexandria in Egypt.
From ‘deinow’ = ‘to make terrible’ and ‘kratein’ = “to rule”
Obviously indicating a ‘terrible ruler’

54. ADMETOS (Άδμητος) m Ancient Greek
derive from the word a+damaw(damazw) and mean tameless,obstreperous.Damazw mean chasten, prevail

55. ANDROTIMOS (Ανδρότιμος) m Ancient Greek
derive from the words andreios (brave, courageous) and timitis(honest, upright )

56. PEITHON m Ancient Greek
Means “the one who persuades”. It was a common name among Macedonians and the most famous holders of that names were Peithon, son of Sosicles, responsible for the royal pages and Peithon, son of Krateuas, a marshal of Alexander the Great.

57. SOSTRATOS m Ancient Greek
Derives from the Greek words “Σως (=safe) +Στρατος (=army)”. He was son of Amyntas and was executed as a conspirator.

58. DIMNOS m Ancient Greek
Derives from the greek verb “δειμαίνω (= i have fear). One of the conspirators.

59. TIMANDROS m Ancient Greek
Meaning “Man’s honour”. It derives from the greek words “Τιμή (=honour) + Άνδρας (=man). One of the commanders of regular Hypaspistes.

60. TLEPOLEMOS ,(τληπόλεμος) m Ancient Greek
Derives from greek words “τλήμων (=brave) + πόλεμος (=war)”. In greek mythology Tlepolemos was a son of Heracles. In alexanders era, Tlepolemos was appointed Satrap of Carmania from Alexander the Great.

61. AXIOS (Άξιος) m ancient Greek
Meaning “capable”. His name was found on one inscription along with his patronymic “Άξιος Αντιγόνου Μακεδών”.

62. THEOXENOS (Θεόξενος) ancient Greek
Derives from greek words “θεός (=god) + ξένος (=foreigner).His name appears as a donator of the Apollo temple along with his patronymic and city of origin(Θεόξενος Αισχρίωνος Κασσανδρεύς).

63. MITRON (Μήτρων) m ancient Greek
Derives from the greek word “Μήτηρ (=Mother)”. Mitron of Macedon appears in a inscription as a donator

64. KLEOCHARIS (Κλεοχάρης) M ancient greek
Derives from greek words “Κλέος (=fame) + “Χάρις (=Grace). Kleocharis, son of Pytheas from Amphipoli was a Macedonian honoured in the city of Eretria at the time of Demetrius son of Antigonus.

65. PREPELAOS (Πρεπέλαος) m, ancient Greek
Derives from greek words “πρέπω (=be distinguished) + λαος (=people). He was a general of Kassander.

66. HIPPOLOCHOS (Ιππόλοχος) m, ancient Greek
Derives from the greek words “Ίππος” (= horse) + “Λόχος”(=set up ambush). Hippolochos was a Macedonian historian (ca. 300 B.C.)

67. ALEXARCHOS (Αλέξαρχος) m, ancient Greek
Derives from Greek “Αλέξω” (=defend, protect, help) + “Αρχος ” (= master). Alexarchos was brother of Cassandros.

68. ASCLEPIODOROS (Ασκληπιοδορος) m Ancient Greek
Derives from the greek words Asclepios (= cut up) + Doro (=Gift). Asclepios was the name of the god of healing and medicine in Greek mythology. Asclepiodoros was a prominent Macedonian, son of Eunikos from Pella. Another Asclepiodoros in Alexander’s army was son of Timandros.

69. KALLINES (Καλλινης) m Ancient Greek
Derives from greek words kalli + nao (=stream beautifully). He was a Macedonian, officer of companions.

70. PLEISTARHOS (Πλείσταρχος) m ancient Greek
Derives from the greek words Pleistos (=too much) + Arhos ((= master). He was younger brother of Cassander.

71. POLYKLES (Πολυκλής) m ancient Greek
Derives from the words Poli (=city) + Kleos (glory). Macedonian who served as Strategos of Antipater.

72. POLYDAMAS (Πολυδάμας) m ancient Greek
The translation of his name means “the one who subordinates a city”. One Hetairos.

73. APOLLOPHANES (Απολλοφάνης) m ancient greek.
His name derives from the greek verb “απολλυμι” (=to destroy) and φαίνομαι (= appear to be). Apollophanes was a prominent Macedonian who was appointed Satrap of Oreitae.

74. ARCHIAS (Αρχίας) m ancient Greek
His name derive from greek verb Άρχω (=head or be in command). Archias was one of the Macedonian trierarchs in Hydaspes river.

75. ARCHESILAOS (Αρχεσίλαος) m ancient Greek
His name derive from greek verb Άρχω (=head or be in command) + Λαος (= people). Archesilaos was a Macedonian that received the satrapy of Mesopotamia in the settlement of 323.

76. ARETAS (Αρετας) m ancient Greek
Derives from the greek word Areti (=virtue). He was commander of Sarissoforoi at Gaugamela.

77. KLEANDROS (Κλέανδρος) m ancient Greek
Derives from greek verb Κλέος (=fame) + Ανδρος (=man). He was commander of Archers and was killed in Hallicarnasus in 334 BC.

78. AGESISTRATOS (Αγησίστρατος) m ancient greek
Father of Paramonos, a general of Antigonos Doson. His name derives from verb ηγήσομαι ( = lead in command) + στρατος (= army). “Hgisomai” in Doric dialect is “Agisomai”. Its full meaning is “the one who leads the army”

79. AGERROS (Αγερρος) M ancient Greek
He was father of Andronikos, general of Alexander. His name derives from the verb αγέρρω (= the one who makes gatherings)

80. AVREAS (Αβρέας) m ancient Greek
Officer of Alexander the great. His name derives from the adj. αβρός (=polite)

81. AGATHANOR (Αγαθάνωρ) m ancient Greek
Som of Thrasycles. He was priest of Asklepios for about 5 years. His origin was from Beroia as is attested from an inscription. His name derives from the adj. αγαθός (= virtuous) + ανήρ (= man). The full meaning of his name is “Virtuous man”

82. AGAKLES (Αγακλής) m ancient Greek
He was son of Simmihos and was from Pella. He is known from a resolution of Aetolians. His name derives from the adj. Αγακλεής (= too glorious)

83. AGASIKLES (Αγασικλής) m ancient Greek
Son of Mentor, from Dion of Macedonia. It derives from the verb άγαμαι (= admire) + Κλέος (=fame). Its full meaning is “the one who admires fame”

84. AGGAREOS (Αγγάρεος) m ancient Greek
Son of Dalon from Amphipolis. He is known from an inscription of Amphipolis (S.E.G vol 31. ins. 616) It derives from the noun Αγγαρεία (= news)

85. AGELAS (Αγέλας) m ancient Greek
Son of Alexander. He was born during the mid-5th BCE and was an ambassador of Macedonians during the treaty between Macedonians and Atheneans. This treaty exists in inscription 89.vol1 Fasc.1 Ed.3″Attic inscrip.”
His name was common among Heraclides and Bacchiades. One Agelas was king of Corinth during the first quarter of 5 BCE. His name derives from the verb άγω (= lead) and the noun Λαός (= people or even soldiers (Homeric)). The full meaning is the “one who leads the people/soldiers”.

86. AGIPPOS (Άγιππος) m ancient Greek
He was from Beroia of Macedonia and lived during middle 3rd BCE. He is known from an inscription found in Beroia where his name appears as the witness in a slave-freeing. Another case bearing the name Agippos in the Greek world was the father of Timokratos from Zakynthos. The name Agippos derives from the verb άγω (= lead) + the word ίππος (= Horse). Its full meaning is “the one who leads the horse/calvary”.

87. AGLAIANOS (Αγλαϊάνος) m ancient Greek
He was from Amphipolis of Macedonia (c. 4th BC) and he is known from an inscription S.E.G vol41., insc. 556
His name consists of aglai- from the verb αγλαϊζω (= honour) and the ending -anos.

88. AGNOTHEOS (Αγνόθεος) m ancient Greek
Macedonian, possibly from Pella. His name survived from an inscription found in Pella between 300-250 BCE. (SEG vol46.insc.799)
His name derives from Αγνός ( = pure) + Θεός (=God). The full meaning is “the one who has inside a pure god”

89. ATHENAGORAS (Αθηναγόρας) m ancient Greek
General of Philip V. He was the general who stopped Dardanian invasion in 199 BC. His name derives from the verb αγορά-ομαι (=deliver a speech) + the name Αθηνά (= Athena).

90. PERIANDROS (Περίανδρος) m ancient Greek
Son of the Macedonian historian Marsyas. His name derives from Περί (= too much) + άνηρ (man, brave). Its full meaning is “too brave/man”.

91. LEODISKOS (Λεοντίσκος) m ancient Greek
He was son of Ptolemy A’ and Thais, His name derives from Λέων (= lion) + the ending -iskos (=little). His name’s full etymology is “Little Lion”

92. EPHRANOR (Ευφράνωρ) m ancient Greek
He was General of Perseas. It derives from the verb Ευφραίνω (= delight). Its full meaning is “the one who delights”.

93. DIONYSOPHON m Ancient Greek
It has the meaning “Voice of Dionysos”. The ending -phon is typical among ancient greek names.

MACEDONIAN WOMEN

94. ANTIGONE f ancient Greek
Usage: Greek Mythology
Pronounced: an-TIG-o-nee
Means ‘against birth’ from Greek anti ‘against’ and gone ‘birth’. In Greek legend Antigone was the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. King Creon of Thebes declared that her slain brother Polynices was to remain unburied, a great dishonour. She disobeyed and gave him a proper burial, and for this she was sealed alive in a cave. Antigone of Pydna was the mistress of Philotas, the son of Parmenion and commander of Alexander the Great’s Companion cavalry (Plutarch, Alexander, ‘The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans’).

95. VOULOMAGA (Βουλομάγα) f ancient greek
Derives from greek words “Βούλομαι (=desire) + άγαν (=too much)”. Her name is found among donators.

96. ATALANTE (Αταλαντη) f ancient Greek
Her name means in Greek “without talent”. She was daughter of Orontes, and sister of Perdiccas.

97. AGELAEIA (Αγελαεία) f ancient Greek
Wife of Amyntas, from the city of Beroia (S.E.G vol 48. insc. 738)
It derives from the adj. Αγέλα-ος ( = the one who belongs to a herd)

98. ATHENAIS (Αθηναϊς) f ancient Greek
The name was found on an altar of Heracles Kigagidas in Beroia. It derives from the name Athena and the ending -is meaning “small”. Its whole meaning is “little Athena”.

99. STRATONIKE f Ancient Greek (STRATONICE Latinized)
Means ‘victorious army’ from stratos ‘army’ and nike ‘victory’. Sister of King Perdiccas II. “…and Perdiccas afterwards gave his sister Stratonice to Seuthes as he had promised.” (Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, Chapter VIII)

100. THETIMA f Ancient Greek
A name from Pella Katadesmos. It has the meaning “she who honors the gods”; the standard Attic form would be Theotimē.

Bibliography:

“Who’s who in the age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander’s Empire” by Waldemar Heckel“The Marshals of Alexander’s empire” by Waldemar Heckel“Macedonians Abroad: A Contribution to the Prosopography of Ancient Macedonia” by A. B. Tataki“The Greek identity of Ancient Macedonians” by Athanasios Sakalis
 

http://historyofmacedonia.wordpress.com/2007/03/12/100-most-famous-ancient-macedonian-names/

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | March 5, 2007

Pyrrhus of Epirus

Pyrrhus was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians in Epirus by hereditary right, but for most of his life he struggled with rival claimants in a collateral line. He was related to Olympias, mother of *Alexander the Great, and attempted to equal or rival Alexander as a world conqueror.

At the age of seventeen, while temporarily out of power in Epirus, he joined with *Demetrius I Poliorcetes and was with him at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 and was later placed in command of various Greek holdings by him.

He later transferred his allegiance to *Ptolemy I. When *Cassander died in 297, Pyrrhus was called to aid one of his sons against his brother, as was Demetrius. Demetrius murdered the young man and proclaimed himself king of Macedonia, a position that Pyrrhus also coveted.

In 286 he joined with Lysimachus and Ptolemy to drive Demetrius from Macedonia and agreed to share rule of Macedonia with Lysimachus. He was, however, driven out by Lysimachus in 283 after the death of Demetrius in Asia. While frequently in conflict with Antigonus II Gonatas, son of Demetrius, Pyrrhus was looking for new opportunities and found one in a request for aid from the city of Tarentum in south Italy, which had entered a war with Rome.

Pyrrhus is most famous for his war against the Romans (282-274), in which he won several battles but at great cost in casualties, which he could not easily replace.

On being congratulated by his staff for another victory, he is said to have remarked, “One more such victory and I am finished”—hence the term “Pyrrhic victory.”

He removed most of his forces to Sicily to respond to requests for help, and to seek further conquests, but was ultimately unsuccessful. He returned to Italy briefly and finally withdrew to Epirus in 274.

He acquired another army, mostly Gauls as mercenaries, and invaded Macedonia and temporarily drove Antigonus II Gonatas to the seacoast. But while plundering the countryside, his Gauls desecrated royal tombs at Aegae (modern Verghina) and enraged the local population. It was an opportune time for Pyrrhus to seek yet another opportunity for conquest, this time against Sparta, ostensibly aiding an exiled king. Sparta defended itself vigorously, and aid from Macedonia at the last minute caused Pyrrhus to withdraw. In the meantime, a faction in the city of Argos sought his aid; the other faction sought help from Antigonus.

During fierce fighting in the city, Pyrrhus was hit on the head by a roof tile thrown by an old woman who observed her son in danger from Pyrrhus. While he was stunned, a Macedonian soldier recognized him and attempted (sloppily) to cut off his head; the severed head was presented to Antigonus.

Pyrrhus’ soldiers admired him for his boldness and considerable combat skills, while rivals universally considered him one of the best generals who ever lived.

Bibliography:
N.G.L. Hammond/Walbank, A History of Macedonia, vol. 3, 336-167 B.C., 1996, Greek Edition.

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | January 3, 2007

Etymology of the 70 most famous ancient Epirotan names

1. ALEXANDROS (Αλέξανδρος) m Ancient Greek (ALEXANDER Latinized)Pronounced: al-eg-ZAN-durFrom the Greek name Alexandros, which meant ‘defending men’ from Greek alexein ‘to defend, protect, help’ and aner ‘man’ (genitive andros). Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, is the most famous bearer of this name. The name was found also in Epirus, Thessaly, Corinth.

2. PYRRHOS (Πύρρος) m Ancient Greek (PYRRHUS Latinized)

Most famous bearers of this name are the Son of Achilles and Dieidameia and also Pyrrhos the Epirotan king, one of the best tacticians in ancient world. The name derives from the greek adj. Pyrrhos (= blond).

3. ALKETAS (Αλκέτας) m Ancient Greek (ALCAEUS Latinized)

Pronounced: al-SEE-usDerived from Greek Αλκη meaning ‘strength’. This was the name of a 7th-century BC lyric poet from the island of Lesbos.

4. ARRYBAS (Αρ[ρ]ύβας) m Ancient Greek

King of the Molossians. He was uncle of Olympias and Alexander of Epirus.It derives from the greek verb ρύομαι (= protect) + βαίνω (= go). Its full meaning is “go to protect”.
 

5. ALKON (Άλκων) m Ancient Greek

Possibly a king of Molossians. His name exists in the list of the “best of Greeks” attended to the court of the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sicyon in order to contest about his daughter’s hand. His name derives from Άλκη (=strenght)
 

6. NEOPTOLEMOS (Νεοπτόλεμος) m Ancient Greek

Son of Achilles. Also the same name bore kings of Molossia. Means ‘new war’, derived from Greek neos ‘new’ and polemos ‘war’.
7. ADMETOS (Άδμητος) m Ancient Greek

It was the name of the Molossian king at the time Themistocles fled to the court of Molossians. Derives from the word a+damaw(damazw) and mean tameless,obstreperous.Damazw mean chasten, prevail
 

8. AEACIDES (Αιακίδης) m Ancient Greek

King of Epirus, father of Pyrrhos. His name means the descedant of Aeacos.
 

9. POLYXENA (Πολυξένη) f ancient Greek

The original name of Olympias, mother of Alexander the great, as a child. (W. Heckel) It derives from the greek adj. Πολύξενος (= very hospitable).
 

10. OLYMPIAS (Oλυμπιάδα) f Ancient Greek

Mother of Alexander the Great. She took this name after her husband’s success in Olympic games. It means “the one related with Olympus/Olympics”
 

11. ANDROCLES (Ανδροκλής) m Ancient Greek

One of the two Molossians who saved the infant Pyrrhos. It derives from the greek noun “ανήρ” (= man (genitive andros)) + Kleos (glory).
 

12. ARISTOMACHOS (Aριστόμαχος) m Ancient Greek

Aristomachos was from Omfalos. His name was found in a inscription of Dodona in 343-331a. (SGDI II 1334 — Cabanes, L’Épire (1976) 540,4)Derived from the Greek adj aristos (=best) + Mache (=war). Its full meaning is “best on war”.
 

13. MENEDAMOS (Μενέδαμος) m Ancient Greek

Menedamos was from Omfalos.His name was found in a inscription of Dodona in 343-331a. (SGDI II 1334 — Cabanes, L’Épire (1976) 540,4). His name derives from from Greek meno (=to last, to withstand) + damos (doric of demos “people”) Its full meaning is “the one who withstands people”
 

14. AMYNANDROS (Αμύνανδρος) m Ancient Greek

Amynandros was son of Eryxis. His name was found on Molossian decrees. It derives from the greek verb αμύνω (=defend) + aner (=‘man’ (genitive andros)). Its full meaning is ” to defend men”
 

15. DOKIMOS (Δόκιμος) m Ancient Greek

Ηε was son of Eryxis αnd brother of Amynandros. His name was found on Molossian decrees. It derives from greek adj. Δόκιμος (=superb)
 

16. TROAS(Τρωάς) f ancient Greek

Sister of Olympias and wife of her uncle Arrybas. Her name means “The one from Troy”. According to the legend the Molossian royal house had an ancestry also from Troy.
 

17. AGATHON (Αγάθων) M Ancient Greek

Agathon was son of Echephylos. His name is found on the Molossian decrees.His name derives from greek noun “αγαθά”(=wealth) meaning the “one who has wealth”.
 

18. BEROE (Bερώη) f Ancient Greek

Daughter of king Arrybas and wife of the Illyrian king Glaukos. She brought up Pyrrhos when he was a child. Her name derives from the greek verb “φέρω” (=bring ie in north-west greek dialect f becomes b)
 

19. MEGAS (Mέγας) m Ancient Greek

Megas was an Epirotan, son of Sinon. His name was found on the Molossian decrees. His name derives from the greek adj “μέγας” (=great).
 

20. PHILOXENOS (Φιλόξενος) m Ancient Greek

He was an Epirotan from Dodone. His name was found on the Molossian decrees. Meaning ‘friend of strangers’ derived from Greek philos meaning friend and xenos meaning ‘stranger, foreigner’.
 

21. KLEOMACHOS (Κλεόμαχος) m Ancient Greek

Kleomachos was an Atintanian. His name was found on the molossian decrees. It derives from Greek kleos (=glory) + Mache (=war)

22. EUALKOS (Eύαλκος) m Ancient Greek

He was a Molossian. His name was found on c. 232-168a. ( Epigrafia romana in area Adriatica (1998) 29, 1 ) It derives from greek adj Ευαλκής (=strong, powerful)
 

23. LYKIDAS (Λυκίδας) m Ancient Greek

He was a chaonian. His name was found on c. 232-168a. ( Epigrafia romana in area Adriatica (1998) 29, 1). It derives from Λύκη (=bright) + the greek ending -das. It means “the bright”.
 

24. AISCHRION (Αισχρίων) m Ancient Greek

His name was found in an inscription of Dodona (c. 300a. — JHS 74 (1954) 56-58) It derives from the greek adj. Αισχρός (=shameful). + greek ending -ion. it means the descedant of Aischros.
 

25. HELLINOS (Ελληνος) m Ancient Greek

A Chaonian, father of Lykidas and His name was found on c. 232-168a. ( Epigrafia romana in area Adriatica (1998) 29, 1). His name derives from Hellene (=Greek).
 

26. AGESANDROS (Αγήσανδρος) m Ancient Greek

Son of Lamiskos from Bouthrotion, (Epeiros — Bouthrotos (Butrint) — c. 232-168a. — Epigrafia romana in area Adriatica (1998) 29, 1 )His name derives from the greek verb Άγω (=lead) + Ανδρός (= men, dotic of aner). Its full meaning is “the one who leads men”.
 

27. APOLLODOROS m Ancient Greek

Means ‘gift of Apollo’ from the name of the god Apollo combined with Greek doron ‘gift’. The patronymic of an epirotan found on Bouthrotos (Epeiros — Bouthrotos (Butrint) — c. 232-168a. — Epigrafia romana in area Adriatica (1998) 29, 1)
 

28.NIKANOR (Nικάνωρ) m ancient Greek

It means “victor” – from Nike (Νικη) meaning “victory”.Nicanor was a common name in Epirus as it was found on many inscriptions.(Epigr. tou Oropou 136 c. 240-180a )
 

29. ARCHEDAMOS (Αρχέδαμος) m ancient Greek

Arcedamos was an epirotan from Bouthrotos. (Bouthrotos (Butrint) — c. 232-168a. — Epigrafia romana in area Adriatica (1998) 29, 1 ) His name derive from greek verb Άρχω (=head or be in command) + Δαμός (= people, doric of demos).
 

30.ANTIGONE f ancient Greek

Usage: Greek Mythology Pronounced: an-TIG-o-neeMeans ‘against birth’ from Greek anti ‘against’ and gone ‘birth’. In Greek legend Antigone was the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. She was the name of a Molossian woman. (IG II² 9972 Attica )

31. HEKATAIOS m Ancient Greek

He was a Molossian. (Amyzon 59 Fragment of list of stephanephoroi, including [Chion]is Chionidos, on block of white marble; II2/I; found at Amyzon: Robert, Amyzon no. 52 (PH); BE 1984:429. ) It means the “one who belongs to the goddess Hecate)
 

32. KALLIPHON (Καλλιφών) m Ancient Greek

Kalliphon was a Molossian and his name was found in an inscription. (Magnesia 49 Decree of boule and demos of Paros accepting invitation of Magnesia Mai. to Leukophryena) It derives from Kallos (=beauty) + φωνή (=voice). It means the “one who has beautiful voice”
 

33. LEON (Λέων) m Ancient Greek

Α Molossian. His name was found in an inscription (Olymos 57 Caria). It derives from ‘Leon’ = ‘lion’
 

34. ARTEMIDOROS (Αρτεμίδωρος) m Ancient Greek

He was a Molossian. (Aphrodisias 32 Caria)His name derives from the name Artemis and δώρο (=gift). Its full meaning is “gift from Artemis”.
 

35. DIODOROS (Διόδωρος) m Ancient Greek

He was a Molossian. (Aphrodisias 306 Caria) His name derives from the name Διας and δώρο (=gift). Its full meaning is “gift from Dias/Zeus”.

36. ANTIPATROS (Αντίπατρος) m Ancient Greek (ANTIPATER Latinized)

Pronounced: an-TI-pa-turFrom the Greek name Antipatros, which meant ‘like the father’ from Greek anti ‘like’ and pater ‘father’. This was the name of an Epirote found in an inscription. (ID 298 Delos — 240 a)
 

37. ASKLΑPIOS (Ασκληπιός) m Ancient Greek

He was a Chaonian and son of Andronikos (Bouthrotos (Butrint) — c. 220-170/160a.) His name is taken from the god Asklepios.
 

38. ARISTOKLEIA (Αριστόκλεια) f ancient Greek

She was daughter of Aristoteles. (IG II² 8532 attica )Derived from the Greek elements aristos ‘best’ and kleos ‘glory’.
 

39. ARISTOTELES (Αριστοτέλης) m Ancient Greek (ARISTOTLE Latinized)

Pronounced: AR-is-taw-tulFrom the Greek name Aristoteles which meant ‘the best purpose’, derived from aristos ‘best’ and telos ‘purpose, aim’. This was the name also of an important Greek philosopher who made contributions to logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology among many other fields.
 

40. KALLIAS (Καλλίας) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan.(IG II² 8546 Attica) His name derives from the greek adj. Kallias (=peaceful)
 

41. PHILIPPOS (Φίλιππος) m Ancient Greek (PHILIP Latinized)

Pronounced: FIL-ipFrom the Greek name Philippos which means ‘friend of horses’, composed of the elements philos ‘friend’ and hippos ‘horse’. The name was borne by five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great and also by Thessalians and Epirotans (IG XI,4 635 Delos — med III a)
 

42. BERENIKE (Βερενίκη) f Ancient Greek (BERENICE Latinized)

Pronounced: ber-e-NIE-seeMeans ‘bringing victory’ from pherein ‘to bring’ and nike ‘victory’. This name was common among the Ptolemy ruling family of Egypt as well into Epirus and Macedonia. (Agora 17 456 Attica)
 

43. FILON (Φιλων) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan. (IG XII,8 594 Thasos) His name derives from Filos (=friend)
 

44. ARISTOKLES (Αριστοκλής) m Ancient Greek

A Molossian, son of Artemidoros. (Aphrodisias 32 Caria) His name derives from Ariston (=best) + Kleos (=glory).
 

45. STRATONIKE (Στρατονίκη) f Ancient Greek (STRATONICE Latinized)

Means ‘victorious army’ from stratos ‘army’ and nike ‘victory’. According to W. Heckel, one of the names of Olympias.
 

46. GLAUKOS (Γλαύκος) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan. (IG II² 8533 Attica) It derives from the greek adj. “Γλαυκός” (= brilliant).
 

47. FALAKRION (Φαλακρίων) m Ancient Greek

He was a Thesprotian. (IG IV²,1 99,II Epidauria). It derives from the greek noun “Falakros” and has the meaning of “bald”. Its full meaning is “the descendant of Falakros.
 

48. ANTIOCHOS (Αντίοχος) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan, son of Nikanor. (I.Kourion 60 Kypros — Kourion — c. 250a.)
 

49. DEINON (Δείνων) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan. (IG XI,4 635 Delos — med III a). His name derives from ‘deinow’ = ‘to make terrible’.
 

50. EYTYCHIS (Ευτυχίς) f Ancient Greek

Epirotan woman, daughter of Neoptolemos (IG II² 8535 Attica)Her namer derives from the greek noun Ευτυχία (=Happiness)

51. LEONTIS (Λεωντίς) f Ancient Greek

Epirotan, daughter of Nikados (IG II² 8539 Attica). It derives from Greek noun Leon (=Lion)
 

52. NIKADOS (Νίκαδος) m Ancient Greek

An epirotan. (IG II² 8539 Attica). It means “the descedant of Nikon”.
 

53. PATROKLOS (Πάτροκλος) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan. (Epigr. tou Oropou 586) A Mythological name. It derives from the greek πάτηρ (=father) + kleos (=glory).
 

54. FANIAS (Φανίας) m Ancient Greek

A Molossian. (Aphrodisias 306 Caria) One of the most common Greek names, specially found in Athens.

55. RODIOS (Ρόδιος) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan, son of Rodippos. (IG II² 8544 Attica). It derives from the noun ρόδη(=rose)

56. LYSIAS (Λυσίας) m Ancient GreekAn Epirotan. (IG XII,Suppl 631 Euboia — Eretria — IIIa.) It derives from the greek adj. Lysios (=the one who liberates)
 

57. RODIPPOS (Ρόδιππος) m Ancient Greek

An Epirotan (IG II² 8544 Attica). It derives from the It derives from the adj ρόδης(=too handsome) + ίππος (=horse). Its full meaning is “too beautiful horse”

58. FILOTEIA (Φιλωτεία) f ancient Greek

An Epirotan woman. (SEG 46:791 Poteidaia-Kassandreia) Her name derives from filos (=friendly) + ending -teia. Its full meaning is “Too friendly”
 

59. STEPHANOS (Στέφανος) m ancient Greek

An Epirotan. (IG II² 8545 attica). His name derives from greek noun στέφανος (= wreath)
 

60. GLAUKETAS (Γλαυκέτας) m ancient Greek

An Epirotan. (IG II² 8534 Attica) It derives from the greek adj. “Γλαυκός” (= brilliant) + ending -etas.
 

61. PARMENISKOS (Παρμενίσκος) m ancient Greek

An Epirotan, son of Alexandros (Thess. Mnemeia 232,46). It means “the little Parmenon”
 

62. ZOPYROS (Ζώπυρος) m ancient Greek

A Molossian. (Olymos 54 Caria) It derives from the greek adj. Zopyros (=the one who is inflamed)

63. DAIPPOS (Δάιππος) m ancient Greek

An Epirotan proxenos of the Oropos city, son of Nikanor (Epigr. tou Oropou 136 c. 240-180a) It derives from the greek adj. δάιος (=frightful) + ϊππος (=horse). Its full meaning is “frightful horse”.

64. DEINOMENES (Δεινομένης) m ancient Greek

A Molossian. (Lindos II 2 99a.) It derives from the greek adj. Δεινός (=wild) + μένος (= power).

65. ALKEMACHOS (Αλκήμαχος) m ancient Greek

An Epirotan, son of Haropos. He won in diaulon in Panhellenic games. (IG II² 2313 Attica 194/3) It derives from Alke (=strenght) + Mache (=war)
 

66. SAMIPPOS (Σάμιππος) m ancient Greek

A Molossian (Att. — Athens: Akr. — med s IV a IG II² 3827) It derives from the greek adj. Σαμός (= tall) + ίππος (=horse), meaning “tall horse”.

67. ANTANOR (Αντάνωρ) m ancient Greek

A Chaonian Proxenos, son of Euthumides. (FD III 4:409 Delphi 325-275 bc — SIG(3) 379) It derives from the greek preposition anti (=equal to) + Aner (=man). It means “equal to man”

68. EFTHIMIDES (Ευθυμίδης) m ancient Greek

A Chaonian proxenos. (FD III 4:409 Delphi proxenia Chaonian 325-275 bc — SIG(3) 379) It derives from the greek adj. Εύθυμος (=cheerful) + the greek ending -ides.

69. NIKOLAOS (Νικόλαος) m ancient Greek

An Epirotan tragodos. (IG XI,2 108 Delos — 279 bc) It derives from νικώ (=win) + λαός (=people). It means the “winner of people”

70. KALLIKRATES (Καλλικράτης) m ancient Greek

A Molossian (Aphrodisias 24 Caria). It derives from κάλλος (=nice, beauty, good) + κρατος (=law, rule). It means the “one who has good rule”.

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | January 1, 2007

Professor Hammond about Epirus

Translation from the Greek Book version into English.

Book III Page 109

The controversial issue, whether Epirotan Ethnes spoke greek has already mentioned previously inside this book. Its obvious that the Greek language was spoken during all Dark age in Dodona and in Nekromanteion. The latter was considred always as one of the Greek manteia (Herod. 1.46.3 where he talks about the “greek manteia” and the meeting of Herod. with the delegates of Periander is described as a normal action (Herod. 5.92)
The Cassiopeians likely spoke greek in that era, because the daughters of Aenieans went to offer worship among them and Molossians, who took part on Ionian immigration were obviously greek speaking, according to Herodotus.
The royal family of Molossis, mainly spoke greek and its members were considered Greeks from Pindarus, Herodotus and Thucydides, but they were not pure. These one way or another are just straws in the wind. The real evidence has came only with the recent discovery of the inscriptions of 370/368 BCE. They are completely in Greek, the names are Greek and the ethnes which are represented to these inscriptions are Molossian and Thesprotian. Greek language and greek names werent adopted suddenly before Peloponessean war. These ethnes were speaking Greek even before the time of Thucydides. We can conclude confidentially that Thucydides put the label “barbarians” onto the ethnes of S. Epirus, without any secondary meaning of non-Greek speakers anyway. They could spoke a more ancient form of Greek language – like the “other Amphilochians” who are too difficult to exist as a carrier of non-greek ethnes between the Greek speaking ethnes of S. Epirus, North Aetolia and Akarnania.

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | December 31, 2006

Ancient writers about Epirus

“Zeus Archon, Dodonean, Pelasgian, who dwells afar, ruling on rough wintered Dodona, surrounded by the Selloi, the interpreters of your divine will, whose feet are unwashed and sleep on the ground”.


Homer, Iliad 16:127 (Achilles prayer)

XI.

“War was at the same time proclaimed against the Tarentines (who are still a people at the extremity of Italy), because they had offered violence to some Roman ambassadors. These people asked aid against the Romans of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who derived his origin from the family of Achilles

XIII.

“…Thus the ambassador of Pyrrhus returned; and, when Pyrrhus asked him “what kind of a place he had found Rome to be,” Cineas replied, that “he had seen a country of kings, for that all there were such, as Pyrrhus alone was thought to be in Epirus and the rest of Greece.”

Eutropius (Abridgment of Roman History) Historiae Romanae Breviarium

“Arha Ellas apo Oricias kai arhegonos Ellas Epiros

“Greece starts at Oricus and the most ancient part of Greece is Epirus.”

Claudius Ptolemy, The Geographer

“Peleus is the forefather of the kings of Epiros”

Pausanias, II (Corinth).

Peleus being the son of King Aeacus (the dynasty’s name) and the father of Achilles.

but we know of no Greek before Pyrros who fought against Rome

Pausanias, 1.11

“So Pyrros was the first to cross over against Rome from mainland Greece, and even so he went over only because he was called in by Tarentum”

Pausanias, 1.12

[6] Being apprized of Alcmaeon’s untimely end and courted by Zeus, Callirrhoe requested that the sons she had by Alcmaeon might be full grown in order to avenge their father’s murder. And being suddenly full-grown, the sons went forth to right their father’s wrong. Now Pronous and Agenor, the sons of Phegeus, carrying the necklace and robe to Delphi to dedicate them, turned in at the house of Agapenor at the same time as Amphoterus and Acarnan, the sons of Alcmaeon; and the sons of Alcmaeon killed their father’s murderers, and going to Psophis and entering the palace they slew both Phegeus and his wife. They were pursued as far as Tegea, but saved by the intervention of the Tegeans and some Argives, and the Psophidians took to flight.

[7] Having acquainted their mother with these things, they went to Delphi and dedicated the necklace and robe according to the injunction of Achelous. Then they journeyed to Epirus, collected settlers, and colonized Acarnania..

Apollodorus, 3.76-3.77.

[12] After remaining in Tenedos two days at the advice of Thetis, Neoptolemus set out for the country of the Molossians by land with Helenus, and on the way Phoenix died, and Neoptolemus buried him; and having vanquished the Molossians in battle he reigned as king and begat Molossus on Andromache. And Helenus founded a city in Molossia and inhabited it, and Neoptolemus gave him his mother Deidamia to wife. And when Peleus was expelled from Phthia by the sons of Acastus and died, Neoptolemus succeeded to his father’s kingdom.”

Apollodorus, 6.12

“It was for this reason that Pyrrhus was defeated by the Romans also in a battle to the finish. For it was no mean or untrained army that he had, but the mightiest of those then in existence among the Greeks and one that had fought a great many wars; nor was it a small body of men that was then arrayed under him, but even three times as large as his adversary’s, nor was its general any chance leader, but rather the man whom all admit to have been the greatest of all the generals who flourish at that same period;”

Dionysius of Halicarnnasus, Roman Antiquities, 19.11

“Theopompus says, that there are fourteen Epirotic nations. Of these, the most celebrated are the Chaones and Molotti, because the whole of Epirus was at one time subject, first to Chaones, afterwards to Molotti. Their power was greatly strengthened by the family of their kings being descended from the Æacidæ, and because the ancient and famous oracle of Dodona was in their country. Chaones, Thesproti, and next after these Cassopæi, (who are Thesproti,) occupy the coast, a fertile tract reaching from the Ceraunian mountains to the Ambracian Gulf.”

“The Molotti also were Epirotæ, and were subjects of Pyrrhus Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, and of his descendants, who were Thessalians. The rest were governed by native princes. Some tribes were continually endeavouring to obtain the mastery over the others, but all were finally subdued by the Macedonians, except a few situated above the Ionian Gulf.”

Strabo, 7.7.1

“Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus, had a particularly high opinion of his powers because he was deemed by foreign nations a match for the Romans; and he believed that it would be opportune to assist the fugitives who had taken refuge with him, especially as they were Greeks, and at the same time so forestall the Romans with some plausible excuse before he should suffer injury at their hands. For so careful was he about his good reputation that though he had long had his eye on Sicily and had been considering how he could overthrow the power of the Romans, he shrank from taking the initiative in hostilities against them, when no wrong had been done him.”

Cassius Dio, Book 9.4
19. When Harrybas, king of the Molossians, was attacked in war by Bardylis, the Illyrian, who commanded a considerably larger army, he dispatched the non-combatant portion of his subjects to the neighbouring district of Aetolia, and spread the report that he was yielding up his towns and possessions to the Aetolians. He himself, with those who could bear arms, placed ambuscades here and there on the mountains and in other inaccessible places. The Illyrians, fearful lest the possessions of the Molossians should be seized by the Aetolians, began to race along in disorder, in their eagerness for plunder. As soon as they became scattered, Harrybas, emerging from his concealment and taking them unawares, routed them and put them to flight.

Frontinus, Strategemata, 13

Alexander, the Epirote, when waging war against the Illyrians, first placed a force in ambush, and then dressed up some of his own men in Illyrian garb, ordering them to lay waste his own, that is to say, Epirote territory. When the Illyrians saw that this was being done, they themselves began to pillage right and left — the more confidently since they thought that those who led the way were scouts. But when they had been designedly brought by the latter into a disadvantageous position, they were routed and killed.”

Frontinus, Strategemata, On Ambushes, 10

For among the Bruttii are the Epizephyrian Locrians and the inhabitants of Croton and Thurii. But north of the gulf the first inhabitants are Greeks, called Epirotes, as far as the city of Epidamnus, which is situated on the sea. And adjoining this is the land of Precalis, beyond which is the territory called Dalmatia, all of which is counted as part of the western empire. And beyond that point is Liburnia,[81] and Istria, and the land of the Veneti extending to the city of Ravenna. These countries are situated on the sea in that region. But above them are the Siscii and Suevi (not those who are subjects of the Franks, but another group), who inhabit the interior. And beyond these are settled the Carnii and Norici. On the right of these dwell the Dacians and Pannonians, who hold a number of towns, including Singidunum[82] and Sirmium, and extend as far as the Ister River. Now these peoples north of the Ionian Gulf were ruled by the Goths at the beginning of this war, but beyond the city of Ravenna on the left of the river Po the country was inhabited by the Ligurians.[83] And to the north of them live the Albani in an exceedingly good land called Langovilla, and beyond these are the nations subject to the Franks, while the country to the west is held by the Gauls and after them the Spaniards. On the right of the Po are Aemilia[84] and the Tuscan peoples, which extend as far as the boundaries of Rome. So much, then, for this.”

Procopius-The Gothic War, Book V, 80

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | December 31, 2006

Modern Historians about ancient Epirus

“Speakers of these various Greek dialects settled different parts of Greece at different times during the Middle Bronze Age, with one group, the “northwest” Greeks, developing their own dialect and peopling central Epirus. This was the origin of the Molossian or Epirotic tribes.”

E.N.Borza “In the shadow of Olympus; The emergence of Macedon” (revised edition, 1992), page 62

“We have seen that the “Makedones” or “highlanders” of mountainous western Macedonia may have been derived from northwest Greek stock. That is, northwest Greece provided a pool of Indo-European speakers of proto-Greek from which emerged the tribes who were later known by different names as they established their regional identities in separate parts of the country. Thus the Macedonians may have been related to those peoples who at an earlier time migrated south to become the historical Dorians, and to other Pindus tribes who were the ancestors of the Epirotes or Molossians. If it were known that Macedonian was a proper dialect of Greek, like the dialects spoken by Dorians and Molossians, we would be on much firmer ground in this hypothesis.”

E.N.Borza “In the shadow of Olympus; The emergence of Macedon” (revised edition, 1992), page 78

“When Amyntas became king of the Macedonians sometime during the latter third of the sixth century, he controlled a territory that included the central Macedonian plain and its peripheral foothills, the Pierian coastal plain beneath Mt. Olympus, and perhaps the fertile, mountain-encircled plain of Almopia. To the south lay the Greeks of Thessaly. The western mountains were peopled by the Molossians (the western Greeks of Epirus), tribes of non-Argead Macedonians, and other populations.”

E.N.Borza “In the shadow of Olympus; The emergence of Macedon” (revised edition, 1992), page 98

“As subjects of the king the Upper Macedonians were henceforth on the same footing as the original Macedonians, in that they could qualify for service in the King’s Forces and thereby obtain the elite citizenship. At one bound the territory, the population and wealth of the kingdom were doubled. Moreover since the great majority of the new subjects were speakers of the West Greek dialect, the enlarged army was Greek-speaking throughout.”

NGL Hammond, “Philip of Macedon”, Gerald Duckword & Ltd, London,
1994

“Certainly the Thracians and the Illyrians were non-Greek speakers, but in the northwest, the peoples of Molossis {Epirot province}, Orestis and Lynkestis spoke West Greek. It is also accepted that the Macedonians spoke a dialect of Greek and although they absorbed other groups into their territory, they were essentially Greeks.”

Robert Morkot, “The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece”,
Penguin Publ., 1996

“Still, Olympias, a Greek from Epirus married to a king of Macedon”

Paul Catledge “The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization 2000”.Chapter 14, page 213

“Olympias, it seems, though Greek by birth…”

Paul Catledge “The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization 2000”. Chapter 14, page 216

The Molossians were the strongest and, decisive for Macedonia, most easterly of the three most important Epeirot tribes, which, like Macedonia but unlike the Thesprotians and the Chaonians, still retained their monarchy. They were Greeks, spoke a similar dialect to that of Macedonia, suffered just as much from the depredations of the Illyrians and were in principle the natural partners of the Macedonian king who wished to tackle the Illyrian problem at its roots.”

Malcolm Errington, “A History of Macedonia”, California University Press,
1990.

The West Greek dialect group denotes the dialects spoken in: (i) the northwest Greek regions of Epeiros, Akarnania, Pthiotid Akhaia….

Johnathan M. Hall, “Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity”, Cambridge University Press, 1997

Alexander was King Philip’s eldest legitimate child. His mother, Olympias,came from the ruling clan of the northwestern Greek region of Epirus.

David Sacks, “A Dictionary of the Ancient Greek World”, Oxford, 1995

Epirus was a land of milk and animal products…The social unit was a small tribe, consisting of several nomadic or semi-nomadic groups, and these tribes, of which more than seventy names are known, coalesced into large tribal coalitions, three in number: Thesprotians, Molossians and Chaonians…We know from the discovery of inscriptions that these tribes were speaking the Greek language (in a West-Greek dialect).

NGL Hammond, “Philip of Macedon”, Duckworth, London, 1994

The molossians were the most powerfull people of Epirus, whose kings had extended their dominion over the whole country. They traced their descent back to Pyrrhus, son of Acchilles..


the Satyres by Juvenal Page 225

That the molossians, who were immediately adjacent to the Dodonaeans in the time of Hecataeus but engulfed them soon afterwards, spoke Illyrian or another barbaric tongue was nowhere suggested, although Aeschylus and Pindar wrote of Molossian lands. That they in fact spoke greek was implied by Herodotus’ inclusion of Molossi among the greek colonists of Asia minor, but became demonstranable only when D. Evangelides published two long inscriptions of the Molossian State, set up p. 369 B.C at Dodona, in Greek and with Greek names, Greek patronymies and Greek tribal names such as Celaethi, Omphales, Tripolitae, Triphylae, etc. As the Molossian cluster of tribes in the time of Hecataeus included the Orestae, Pelagones, Lyncestae, Tymphaei and Elimeotae,as we have argued above, we may be confindent that they too were Greek-speaking;

Inscriptional evidence of the Chaones is lacking until the Hellinistic period; but Ps-Scylax, describing the situation of c. 380-360 put the Southern limit of the Illyrians just north of the Chaones, which indicates that the Chaones did not speak Illyrian, and the acceptance of the Chaones into the Epirote alliance in the 330s suggest strongly that they were Greek-speaking

“The Cambridge Ancient History – The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C., Part 3: Volume 3” by P Mack Crew Page 284

however, in central Epirus the only fortified places were in the plain of Ioannina, the centre of the Molossian state. Thus the North-west Greek-speaking tribes were at a half-way stage economically and politically, retaining the vigour of a tribal society and reaching out in a typically Greek manner towards a larger political organization.

“The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 6, the Fourth Century BC” by D M Lewis, Martin Ostwald, Simon Hornblower, John Boardman

In 322 B.C when Antipater banished banished the anti-Macedonian leaders of the Greek states to live ‘beyond the Ceraunian Mountains’ (plut. Phoc. 29.3) he regarded Epirus as an integral part of the Greek-speaking mainland.

Page 443

The chaones as we will see were a group of Greek-speaking tribes, and the Dexari, or as they were called later the Dassarete, were the most northernly member of the group.

Page 423

Molossi (Μολοσσοί), a people in Epirus, who inhabited a narrow slip of country, called after them Molossia (Μολοσσία) or Molossis, which extended from the Aous, along the western bank of the Arachthus, as far as the Ambracian Gulf. The Molossi were Greek people, who claimed descent from Molossus, the son of Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) and Andromache, and are said to have emigrated from Thessaly into Epirus, under the guidance of Pyrrhus himself. In their new abodes they intermingled with the original inhabitants of the land and with the neighbouring illyrian tribes of which they were regarded by the other Greeks as half barbarians. They were, however, by far the most powerful people in Epirus, and their kings gradually extended their dominion over the whole of the country. The first of their kings, who took the title of King of Epirus, was Alexander, who perished in Italy B.C. 326. The ancient capital of the Molossi was Pasaron,but Ambracia afterward became their chief town, and the residence of their kings. The Molossian hounds were celebrated in antiquity, and were much prized for hunting.

A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography” by William Smith

That they [Dorians] were related to the North-West Dialects (of Phocis, Locris, Aetolia, Acarnania and Epirus) was not perceived clearly by the ancients

History of the Language Sciences: I. Approaches to Gender II. Manifestations
By Sylvain Auroux, page 439

the western greek people (with affinities to the Epirotic tribes) in Orestis, Lyncus, and parts of Pelagonia;

“In the shadow of Olympus..” By Eugene Borza, page 74

Posted by: History Of Macedonia | December 31, 2006

The Molossian Decrees

09. Dodona, sanctuary of Zeus: stone stele with decree of Molossians before 330? Cabanes (197611) 541 no. 6; SEG xxvi. 699.

[ Gods. When king was Al]exa[ndros when p]rosta[tas of Molos]sians was Ar[istoma]chos Om[phalas, and when] secretary was Me]neda[mos Laru]os, [Molossoi] ga[ve] exe[mption from taxes——-]

D10. Dodona, sanctuary of Zeus: bronze plaque recording an offering by Zakynthians, late 330?
Eggerr(1877) 254 fr; Carapanos (1878) i. 39-40; Franke (1955) 38, suggesting a date soon after 334; Dakans (1964) pl. 4; Hammond (1967) 534; (no reference in Parke 1967); Cabanes (1981) 26, 36 no. 4.

God. Forrune. Zeus, ruler of Dodona, the gift to you i send from me: Agathon son of Echephulos and descent line, proxenoi of Molossians and allies in thirty generations, descent line from Kassandra of Troy. Zakynthians.

D11. Dodona. sanctuary of Zeus: bronze plague, 343 – 331?
Carapanos (1878) i. 32. 5; SGDl 1337; Fraser (1954) 57 n. 13 (attributing to the fourth century and to Alexandros I); Hammond (1967) 536. Restorations are very uncertain. For the word-end restored as ‘allie]s?’ a restoration as [commonal]ty?’ is equally possible.

(When king was Alex[andros, when prostatas of Molossoi was Bakch[- -, and secretary was Sun[- – – of Molossoi and *allies of the Molossoi——-] citizenship

D12. Dodona. sanctuary of Zeus: bronze plague, 343 – 331?
SGDI 1334. Fraser (1954) 57 n. 13 (attributing To the fourth century and to Alexandros I); Hammond (1967) 535-6.

With good fortune. While king was Alexandros, when prostates of Molossoi was Aristoma[ch]os Omphalas and secretary was Menedamos Omphalas, they the commonalty of Molossoi gave equivalence-of -citizenship to Simias of Apollonia, resident in Theptinon, to himself and to descent line and to descent from] descent line

D13. Dodona, sanctuary of Zeus: bronze plaque, 343-331?
Carapanos (1878) L 27. 3; SGDI 1335; Fraser (1954) 57 n. 13 (attributing to the fourth century and to Alexandres I); Hammond (1967) 535—6 (restoring *of the [Molossians)’ rather than ‘of the [Epeirotai]’); Cabanes (1976a) 541 no 5.

[While king] was [Al]exandros. when o[f] Molossoi [prostatas] was Aris(to]machos Omphalas. secr]etar{y] was Menedamos [Omphalas. re]solved by t[h]e assembly of the [Molossoi]: Kteson i[s] benefactor, [hence to give] citizenship ro Ktes[on and] descent line.

D14* Duduna, sanctuary of Zeus: limestone stele, 343-331? Cahanes (1976a) 588-9 no 74; SEG xxvi. 700,

[God], Fortune. While king was [Alexandros. when prostatas of Molossoi was Theudotos Koroneiatas. when secretary was Menedamo[s] Larruos, Pheideta son of Inon released Kleanor as free, both remaining and running away wherever he may choose Witnesses: Mega[s] son of Sinon, Amunandros son of Eruxi[s], Dokimos son of Eruxis, Amunandros son of Inon. Nikanor son of Alipon.

DI5- Dodona. sanctuary of Zeus: bronze plaque, c.330?
Carapanos (1878) i. 27. 2; SGDI 1351; Cabanea (1976a) 580 no. 55; Cabanes (1981) 27, 36 no. 5 (assigning a date near to 330).

Released Grupon from slavery the following, by foreigners’ manumission, Theo-dotos, Aleximachos. So[m]utha. Galaithos, Xenus. Witnesses: of Mollossoi [sic] Androkkas Dodonaios. Philipos Dodonaios. Philoxenos Dodonaios, Draipos Dodonaios, Agilaios Dodonaios, Krainus Phoinatos, Amunandros Dodonaios. Of Threspotoi [sic] Dokimos Larisaios, Peiandros Eleaios. Menandros Tiaios, Alex-andros Tiaios. Demon son of Thoxouchares, Philippo[s], Philon Onopernos. When prostatas was Philoxenos Onopern[os. Of Zeus] Naios (and) Diana.

D16 Dodona, sanctuary of Zeus: bronze plaque, late fourth century? Carapanos (1878) L 27. 1; SGDI 1336; Michel. Recueil 317; Franke (1955) 35-6 (construing the phrase ‘the allies of the Apeirotai’ as a partitive genitive and as denoting ‘those within the Epeirote alliance’); Hammond (1967) 550-60 (dating it to 317-312 or 302-297); Cabanes (1976a) 545 no. 1 a; (1981) 28, 37 no. 6.

God. Fortu[ne. To K]leomachos Atintan the allies of the Apeirotai gave within Apeiros tax exemption, when king was Neoptolemos son of Alexandros, when prostatas was Derkas of Molossoi—and full fiscal rights.

Bibliography:

Alternatives to Athens: Varieties of Political Organization and Community in Ancient Greece
By Stephen (EDT) Hodkinson, Roger Brock

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